The Twentieth Century and Schatzberg’s Paradox

Technology is the collection of various techniques, systems, skills, and methods employed in the creation of new products or in the achievement of specific goals, for example in the scientific arena. Thus, a technology item is a product that interacts with some physical factor or environment and thereby performs a specific function.

Schatzberg’s Paradox

The best flashlight to buy therefore is a light source capable of producing illumination or of providing sufficient light to the environment, such as in emergency situations. In short, a flashlight is a light source with a special function that could be achieved through various technological innovations.

One might argue therefore that the best flashlight to buy falls under both a technological and a cultural approach. Indeed, Schatzberg’s definition of a flashlight is indeed a product that meets both criteria powerful flashlight. Moreover, I would submit that the best definition of technology in this paper is a system or process that produces a result by means of interactions among physical factors or environmental factors.

Now then, to define what we mean by best in this article, we have to refine our attention so that we can be more precise. What may be the best flashlight for one person may not be the best for another. In fact, what may be the best Greek techne for one student of classical studies may not be the best Greek techne for another. We all know this too well because it is an empirical observation that one’s educational experiences and cultural background have a lot to do with how a person learns and practices technological innovations.

Accordingly, the best definition of science as regards to technological innovations is a system of ideas or theories, formulated by an individual or group of individuals in order to describe a subject (the technological world), in such a way that it can be tested and accepted as existing in nature. This means that science is a descriptive category, but it is also a descriptive one. A technology that describes a reality does not necessarily need to have a physical description, since the reality that it describes could also be a non-physical reality, such as electricity flowing through a wire, or light falling from a cloud. The dynamism or motion characteristic of that reality would be a description of that reality.

Thus, the aim of science is to describe a reality, and to test its properties so that other individuals and other institutions can map the real world around us according to its most accurate properties. In this way, science attempts to solve problems and to lay the foundation for technological innovations. Science is a part of the broader discipline known as technology, which refers to all the different applications of technological concepts found today in various fields. Technological concepts like artificial intelligence, information technology, and e-commerce are themselves not sciences, since they cannot themselves verify or falsify; however, as technology grows and matures over time, and as it is applied more successfully, then these will become sciences.

Thus, in the twenty-first century, we are already witnessing Schatzberg’s paradoxes. When science and technology try to describe the physical world around us, they tend to describe it in terms of systems of knowledge, technological devices, and scientific practices. We know a great deal about systems of knowledge because they are the basis for all of our scientific and educational practices, but we are very less aware of how technological systems work, what their purposes are, or why they might fail.

Only very recently has science begun to address these questions, and only very recently have the results been very significant. It is in this context that the real age of science must be considered as a historical stage in which the progress of technology has created profound changes not only in the field of physical sciences but of all the other sciences as well.

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